Nigeria, Africa - Stein Travel

Nigeria

Destinations




    • 16+ years

    • 12-15 years

    • 2-11 years

    • 0-23 months


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Welcome to Nigeria

Situated in tropical West Africa, the oil-rich state of Nigeria is the regional superpower and the most populous country in Africa. It is listed as one of the 'Next Eleven' major economies of the world - yet despite its abundant natural resources, it remains one of the world's poorest countries, with a per capita GDP of just US$300 per annum.

The country is made up of over 250 tribes, and this potentially explosive mix, together with tensions between the Muslim and Christian sections of population (the majority of Nigeria's Christian population lives in the oil-producing, wealthier southern region of the country), have contributed to Nigeria's potential being untapped. Decades of civil war, famine, military dictators and rampant corruption have left the country with deep divisions that will take many years to heal over completely. There are stirring signs of recovery, however, and Nigeria is emerging as an eminent tourist destination in Africa - welcoming nearly two million visitors a year.

The capital city is Abuja, but the largest economic centre and chief port is the former Colonial capital of Lagos, located on the Bight of Benin in southwestern Nigeria. The capital was moved to Abuja, located in the heart of the country, in 1991, largely in a bid to curb the frenetic migration to Lagos not only from rural Nigeria, but from neighbouring countries as well. Despite this measure, Lagos remains a sprawling, overcrowded industrial metropolis, home to nearly 8 million people.

With 500 miles (805km) of coastline, Nigeria has all the raw ingredients to make for a top tourist destination, and the new government has pledged to improve infrastructure and attract investment to tap the country's tourism potential. Meanwhile, this varied land of sandy beaches, lagoons, tracts of tropical forest, magnificent waterfalls and fascinating historic sites is being enjoyed by only the most adventurous travellers.

The vast majority of visitors to Nigeria come for business, and the regular flights from Europe and North America have so far been filled mainly with oil executives looking for their slice of Africa's largest oil producer.


Business

Those looking to do business in Nigeria - and especially those who've never done business on the African continent before - will certainly have to prepare themselves to face unique challenges. Although recently, great strides have been made within the corporate world in Nigeria - Africa's most populous nation, and one of the most oil-rich nations on earth - the country still suffers from massive corruption and a debilitating lack of infrastructure, which can make doing business there difficult, to say the least. The management style typically found in Nigeria is extremely hierarchical. The boss - invariably male, and always of an older generation - will expect and will receive respect from all those working beneath him, and will neverbe publicly criticised. However, this does notnecessarily mean that all decisions are made on this authority-figure's whim - business relationshipsare extremely important in Nigeria, and often, compromises can be reached. In general, Nigerian business leaders will lead strongly - giving their employees instructions that are expected to be followed closely. Teamwork, and the ability to work together toward clearly-defined goals, are considered more valuable assests in the Nigerian workplace than independent thinking, or individualistic efforts. Business etiquette in Nigeria demands that you cement a working business relationship between yourself and your associates, and are prepared to wait patiently for this trust to develop. Business meetings in Nigeria are very social occasions - providing the framework within which solid interpersonal connections are to be made. Bear the following in mind: respect for your elders is huge in Nigeria - even if you possess more qualifications than older colleagues (or even if you 'outrank' them, in corporate terms), there is no surer way to cause offence in Nigeria than by disrespecting members of the older generation. In Nigeria, especially for men, it is important that your business dress reflects your status - wear dark, stylish suits and a tie, and don't hold back on the accessories. Dressing for work in Nigeria can be trickier for female expats, especially those used to the more relaxed dress codes found in the UK or America. Nigeria is a very traditional country, and therefore, skirts above the knee and cleavage-revealing tops are unacceptable in the office environment, as is the exposure of too much skin around the collarbone and shoulder area. There is no specific protocol for the exchanging of business cards in Nigeria - although it is considered rude not to study the card in the presence of the person who gave it to you. Make sure any tertiary education or qualifications you have received are printed on your card, and that your title is prominently displayed. In a country of so many different ethnic groups and dialects, English has emerged as the de factolanguage of business in Nigeria. Business hours are generally from 8am (or 8.30am) to 5pm, from Monday to Friday. In the northern (predominately Muslim) part of Nigeria, Friday is a day of rest.

Climate

Nigeria is generally hot all year round, with little variation between winter and summer. Seasons are defined as the wet season, from April to October, and the dry season, from November till March. The dry season witnesses the prevailing influences of the dry and dusty northeast winds. The wet season is particularly noticeable on the south-eastern coast, where annual rainfall reaches about 130 inches (330cm).

Communications

The country code for Nigeria is +234, and the outgoing international code is 009, followed by the relevant country code (e.g. 00927 for South Africa). City/area codes are in use, e.g. (0)1 for Lagos, (0)9 for Abuja. Full international direct dialling is available. There are good GSM 900 and 1800 mobile phone networks covering Lagos, Abuja and some other major towns. Internet cafes can be found in major cities.

Customs

Nigeria has a relatively formal society and it is appropriate to address Nigerians by their surnames until you know them very well. Beachwear is only appropriate for the beach. Nigeria has the largest Muslim population in Africa, living mainly in the north. Women should dress modestly, and avoid wearing trousers, and all visitors should exercise discretion in behaviour and dress, especially when visiting religious sites and during the holy month of Ramadan. Time is a different concept in West Africa than in Europe or North America. Being 'on time' to a Nigerian could easily be a couple of hours after an agreed start-time. Evening social events tend to start late and often continue into the small hours. Photography in airports may lead to arrest. Homosexuality is illegal.

Duty Free

Travellers to Nigeria over 18 years do not have to pay duty on either 200 cigarettes, 50 medium sized cigars or 200g tobacco. Also allowed are 1 litre spirits and 1 litre wine, perfume or eau de Cologne for personal use and gifts to the value of N300 (excluding jewellery, photographic equipment, electronics and luxury goods.). The following items carry substantial duty levies: Cameras, projectors and other electronic goods, unless visitors can provide proof of possession for at least three years or can submit a certificate of re-importation. Prohibited items include beer, mineral water, soft drinks, sparkling wine, fresh fruit and vegetables, textiles, mosquito netting, jewellery and precious metals, cereals and eggs. Flowers, plants and seeds often need permits and the rules regarding specific species often change, so it is best to check the situation as close to your time of travel as possible. Prescription medication, drugs and pharmaceutical products should be accompanied by a letter from your GP as well as the original prescription, these goods should not be carried in your checked luggage.

Electricity
Electrical current is 240 volts, 50Hz. Round and square three-pin plugs are used.
Health

When travelling to Nigeria, an international vaccination certificate against yellow fever is required. A Cholera vaccination certificate is also required if coming from an infected area. As a precaution against cholera, visitors should drink or use only boiled or bottled water and avoid ice in drinks. Anti-malaria prophylaxis and TB inoculation are recommended. At present there is a high risk of polio infection in northern Nigeria and inoculations are advised. Visitors should seek the latest medical advice on inoculations at least three weeks prior to departure. Private clinics are found even in the smallest towns. In major cities, private hospitals offer good facilities. As in many countries, costs for medical services or hospital care must be shouldered by the traveller. There are government hospitals throughout the country, but apart from emergencies, the hospitals are more geared to serving the local population. Individuals needing specialised treatment for acute illness or severe injury are usually evacuated to Europe or South Africa. Good, comprehensive insurance is strongly advised, and should include evacuation. Pharmacies abound in Nigeria, even in supermarkets and are open during normal trading hours. Some are open even on Sundays in supermarkets.

Language
English is the official language in Nigeria and is widely used, though many other languages are also spoken.
Money

Nigerian currency is the Naira (NGN), which is divided into 100 kobo. Approved exchange facilities include the major hotels and the airport, but official rates are very high. It is illegal to change money on the street. Credit card fraud is a problem and visitors are advised against the use of credit cards throughout the country. Credit card facilities are also limited. Facilities for changing travellers cheques are also very limited. Prior to travel, visitors should ensure they have a variety of currency options available to them (Sterling, US dollars or Euros) in cash. Travellers should be aware of the prevalence of commercial fraud in, and emanating from, Nigeria.

Passport Visa

Nationals of virtually all countries require a visa to enter Nigeria (the few exceptions are mainly neighbouring African states). Visas must be obtained in advance and all visitors require a return ticket, documents for onward travel and sufficient funds. Those entering for business reasons must also have a letter of invitation and verification from Nigerian representatives abroad stating purpose of entry. Passports must be valid for at least six months after arrival.

Safety

Violent street crime, armed robberies, muggings and car jackings are prevalent in Lagos and elsewhere in the more populous southern regions of the country. Recent gang violence in central Port Harcourt means that visitors should take care when travelling around the town. Numerous hazards await unwary and uninformed visitors, from bogus greeters at the airport, to scams involving efforts to extort money from visitors' relatives back home and even taking hostages for ransom. Visitors should ensure that their local hosts and/or family and friends at home know their travel plans. The reliability of domestic airlines has also been questioned due to numerous accidents. There are frequent outbreaks of civil unrest and violence, usually caused by ethnic tensions and strikes often cause disruption to transport and other services. Following riots in Kano, travellers are advised to be extremely cautious in the northern region of Nigeria. Travellers are advised to avoid all protests and demonstrations. Fuel shortages often occur, adding to uncertainty for road travel that is already hazardous because of the risk of armed robbery and car jackings, particularly in traffic jams and rural areas. Public transport is extremely dangerous with buses and taxis poorly maintained and fraud and criminal activity rife among drivers. The Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa States should also be avoided, particularly the riverine areas and Port Harcourt, due to hostage-taking. All but essential travel to Akwa Ibom State should also be avoided. Oil facilities have been attacked and expatriate oil workers seized.

Tipping

In restaurants a 10% tip is adequate if a service charge hasn't already been added. Negotiate taxi fares before embarking on a journey; remember that fares are usually increased for tourists so tipping isn't necessary. Porters should be tipped accordingly.


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